Saturday, June 30, 2012

Rangkaian Infra Red Remote Tester

type='html'>Infra Red Remote Tester

The circuit is very effective to test the remote controls what still works or not, the remote record will be tested using infra red. Examples of the TV remote, AC and others. Please try I am sure 100% will be successful.

Rangkaian Remote TesterRangkaian Remote Tester

The workings of the circuit is very simple, when the infra red sensor receive infrared signals pin 2 sensor will produce a voltage, this voltage will drives the PNP transistor so that the LED lamp and piezo disc (BZ) is active. for the power supply you can use a 9 volt battery and then use IC 7805 or use 1.5 volt batteries x 3

Following the specification of components installed
  • Transistor BC557
  • TSOP 1738 Sensor Infra Red
  • R1 = 10k ohm ¼ watt Resistor
  • R2 = 1k ohm ¼ watt Resistor
  • R3 = 1k ohm ¼ watt Resistor
  • BZ = piezo disc
  • led
TSOP 1738 Sensor Infra Red

  • Photodetector and preamplifier circuit in the same casing.
  • Receives and amplifies the infrared signal without any external component.
  • 5 V output (active at level 0).
  • 38 kHz integrated oscillator.
  • High sensitivity.
  • High level of immunity to ambient light.
  • Improved shielding against electrical field interference.
  • TTL and CMOS compatibility.
  • Applications: infrared remote control.
Technical specification
  • Supply: 5 V
  • Power consumption: 0.4 to 1.0 mA
  • Min. Ee irradiation: 0.35 mW/m2 typ.
  • Angle of detection: 90
  • Dimensions of the casing (mm): 12.5 x 10 x Thickness 5.8
  • Temperature range: -25 C to +85 C

Rangkaian Audio Mixer 6 Channel

Audio Mixer 6 Channel

The following is a main of the mixer-6 Ch circuit. The circuit constituted by six input channels. The channels are from monophonic channels CH 1-4 and CH 5-6, are intended for stereo use. The number of input channels they want as long Itself Can Increase You Want.
rangaian audio mixer 6 channelSkema rangaian audio mixer 6 channel

The output of Each channel drives the RV1-6, that regulation potesometer level of sound. With RV7-12 We create conditions of balance Between two channels (BALANCE). All the signals from the input channels in this point are added by two adders [IC1a-b], for Each channel Here exist two Trimmer TR1-2 That adjust the gain of Each IC, adapting the level of signal of the output, in the level That We Want. They Can be suppressed if you do not need something and Standard and Poor. The next stage is a equalizer, three bands of regulation. The IC3α-b, constitute the output of the mixer, they want a one acre have gain and they want the make the essential isolation of the previous stages, with the unit That We Will drives. For whoever they want want they want use headphones, it exists a classic circuit drive of headphones, round the IC2a-b, that give the output in the JF13. It Can Also Also exist optical clue of audio levels, with a stereo VUMETER.

List component
  • R1-12=4.7Kohms
  • R13-24=10Kohms
  • R25-26=22Kohms .
  • R27-30-34-39=100ohms
  • R28-29-36-37=100Kohms
  • R31-42=10Kohms
  • R32-41=4.7Kohms
  • R33-40=10Kohms
  • R35-38=47ohms
  • RV1....4=47Kohms Log.
  • RV5-6-13=2X47Kohms Log.
  • RV7....12=10Kohms Lin. pot. Log
  • C1....8=10uF 25V
  • C9-11=47pF ceramic or mylar
  • C10-12=47uF 25V
  • C13-14=100uF 25V
  • C15-16=2.2uF 16V
  • C18-21=100pF ceramic or mylar
  • C19-20=220uF 25V
  • TR1-2=4.7Kohms trimmer
  • Q1-3=BD139
  • Q2-4=BD140
  • IC2=NE5532 - TL072
All the Resistors is 1/4W 1% metal film C18-21=100pF ceramic or mylar

for more detail read here

Cara Menentukan Nilai Resistor Pada LED

Menentukan Nilai Resistor Pada LED

How to choose a resistor to turn on the LED? Why LEDs need resistors? That's because the LED does not have a current regulator, the LED will burn out if no resistor.

The amount of flow determines how bright an LED. Greater flow of the lighter flame of an LED. Current in the LED should be approximately 10-20 mA. When a current passes through a LED, the LED voltage drop of about 1.85 V or depending on the type of LED that is in use

LED picLEDs Pic

To determine the resistor on the led first consider the graph above (right graph ). Choose the desired LED light and use this chart to determine the required flow. For example, if the desired luminous intensity (high / dark light an LED) for 1, can be seen that the currents are in need of 20 mA.

This shall mean the current 20 mA to pass through the LED, to get the brightness of LED = 1. Now, we can calculate the voltage drop across the LED based on a known flow. Look at the graph on the left at 20 mA. Now you know that the fall in voltage of 1.85 V. Know that the voltage drop across the LED is not only a function of current, but also the color of the LED and the temperature (because of chemical differences in the LED).

Color Potential Difference (LED voltage)
  • Infrared : 1.6 V
  • Red : 1.8 V - 2.1 V
  • Orange : 2.2 V
  • Yellow : 2.4 V
  • Green : 2.6 V
  • Blue : 3.0 V - 3.5 V
  • White : 3.0 V - 3.5 V
  • Ultraviolet : 3.5 V
The following example circuit LED (Menentukan Nilai Resistor Pada LED) series / parallel based on Ohm's law, V = IR to refer to the list above the LED voltage

Led parallel
Resistor values = (voltage source - LED voltage) / LED current
  • Red LED resistor values (12 V- 1.8V) /0.02 A = 510 ohms
  • Blue LED resistor values (12V - 3V) / 0.02 A = 450 ohms
LED SeriResistor values = (voltage source - the total LED voltage) / LED current
  • Resistor values = (12V - 9.6 V) / 0.02 A = 120 ohms

Menghitung Resistor LED Putih (Super Bright White LED)

LED (light emitting diode) is currently being widely used, among other things, traffic signal lights and indicator lights of the vehicle. Efisasi value (lumens per watt) LED increasingly make this light source is used widely in the field of lighting.

LED Super Bright Nyala PutihSuper bright white LED pic

LED is highly efficient light sources. Average white LED lamps that are marketed produce light efisasi of 32 lumens per watt (lm / W), and the results of the latest technological development is expected to produce 80 lm / W. LED operating life which has made a long-white LED light is very attractive.

Menghitung Resistor LED Super Bright Nyala Putih

The following formula to calculate the required resistance is as follows:

R = (Vs-Vd)/Id

  • R = resistance is needed (Ohm)
  • Vs = voltage source / power supply (Volt)
  • Vd = LED forward voltage (Volt)
  • Id = LED forward current (Ampere)
Lights will be used 3 pieces LED, when the voltage source using a 12 VDC car batteries. The question now, what is the ideal resistor values to inhibit voltage 12VDC, so that the LED does not die quickly?

So, (-12V (3.6 V * 3)) / .03 A = 40Ω

Thus, the resistor value for 3 pieces LED lights that are installed in series 20Ω

how to install it as below
Rangkaian LED Super Bright Nyala Putih
  • The voltage (Vd) and current (Id) white LED can be seen in the datasheet below
Datasheet 500TSW4DF Super Bright White 5mm LED
  • DC Forward Current 30 mA
  • Reverse Voltage (IR = 100mA) 5 V
  • Forward Voltage 3.6 - 3.8 V
  • Peak Pulse Forward Current (1) 100 mA
  • Avg. Forward Current (Pulse Operation) 30 mA
  • Operating Temperature -30 to +85 0C
  • Storage Temperature -40 to +100 0C

Cara Mrogram mikrokontroller AT89S52 Mengunakan Programmer 2.15

Mrogram mikrokontroller AT89S52 Via Programmer 2.15

Programmer 2.15 is a software specifically developed for programming, read, or erase the internal flash memory microcontroller AT89S52, Programmer2.15 also equipped with a text editor that can be used to create the program in 8051 assembler language and compiled directly in to the file hex

Programmer 2.15 windowPic 1. Programmer 2.15 window

How to use Programmer 2.15
  • Programmer2.25 is equipped with a text editor that functions to make programming in assembler language.
  • When finished making your program can compile directly using a shortcut assemblel / compile it (F9), if it found an error from the program list, programmer 2.51 will display an error message, and if there are no errors will appear the message "NO ERRORS FOUND"
  • after the compile process successfully you can directly write down (the download) to the flash memory at8951/52

How to program (to download) to the flash memory AT89S51/52

Assembler program that has been compiled with no errors can be directly in the programming or "the downloaded" to the flash memory AT89S51/52. Programmer 2.15 using parallel port for this download process. Also in need a special interface circuit such as circuit scheme is shown below.

rankaian antarmuka Programmer 2.15
rankaian antarmuka Programmer 2.15Pic 2. rankaian antarmuka Programmer 2.15

Before doing the download process needs to be done beforehand setting process, the setup process is done using a programming menu / setup (See figure 1.) Settings are done to select the parallel port address, memory lock bits mode, and determining conditions RST pin after the download process completed

Pic 3. settings window

  • Adjust settings such as the picture above
  • LPT1 address customize to your computer
  • Programmer2.15 suitable for programming (download) Microcontroller AT89S51/52
After doing the settings in the process of programming can be done through programflashmemory menu (F2)

Rangkaian Charge Monitor for 12V battery

type='html'>This circuit project is a function for monitoring the charge level of 12 volt batteries continuously. The circuit possesses two vital features:
  1. reduces the requirement of human attention by about 85%.
  2. highly accurate and sophisticated methods.
A battery is a vital element of any battery-backed system. In many cases the battery is more expensive than the systems it is backing up. We need to Adopt Hence all practical measures to Conserve battery life.

As per manufacturer's data sheets, a 12V rechargeable battery operated Should be within 10. IV and 13.8V. When the battery charges higher than 13.8V it is said to be overcharged, and it discharges below 10.IV Pls Can it be Deeply discharged. A single event of overcharge or deep discharge Can bring down the charge-holding capacity of a battery by 15 to 20%.

Rangkaian charge monitor for 12V batterySkema rangkaian charge monitor for 12V battery


For calibrating the upper and lower reference levels, a digital multimeter and a variable regulated power supply source are required. For calibrating the lower reference voltage, follow the steps given below:
  • Set the output of power supply source to 10. IV.
  • Connect the power supply source in place of the battery.
  • Now the display will show some reading. At this point vary preset VR2 until the reading on the display just changes from 1 to 0.
  • The higher reference voltage is calibrated similarly by setting the power supply to 13.8V and varying preset VR1 until reading on the display just changes from 8 to 9.

How to Work a Circuit of Charge Monitor for 12V Battery

Input from the battery under test is applied to LM3914 1C. This applied voltage is ranked anywhere between 0 and 10, depending upon its magnitude. The lower reference voltage of 10.IV is ranked '0' and the upper voltage of 13.8V is ranked as '10.' (Outputs 9 and 10 are logically ORed in this circuit.) This calibration of reference voltages is explained above.

1C 74LS147 is a decimal-to-BCD priority encoder which converts the output of LM3914 into its BCD complement. The true BCD is obtained by using the hex inverter 74LS04. This BCD output is displayed as a decimal digit after con version using IC5 (74LS247), which is a BCD-to-seven-segment decoder/driver. The seven-segment LED display (LTS-542) is used because it is easy to read compared to a bar graph or, for that matter, an analogue meter. The charge status of the battery can be quickly calculated from the display. For instance, if the display shows 4, it means that the battery is charged to 40 per cent of its maximum value of 13.8V.

The use of digital principles enables us to employ a buzzer that sounds whenever there is an overcharge or deep discharge, or there is a need to conserve battery charge. A buzzer is wired in the circuit such that it sounds whenever battery-charge falls to ten per cent. At this point it is recommended that unnecessary load be switched off and the remaining charge be conserved for more important purposes.

Another simple combinational logic circuit can also be designed that will sound the buzzer when the display shows 9. Further charging should be stopped at this point in order to pre vent overcharge.

Rangkaian Kontrol Kecepatan Wiper Mobil

type='html'>Pengontrol Kecepatan Wiper

For some car wiper speed sometimes just made some speed so that less appropriate when we want a different speed, but for those of you who want a digital wiper speed controller you can also use this circuit to replace your old system.

rangkaian kontrol kecepatan wiper mobilSkema rangkaian kontrol kecepatan wiper mobil

This circuit comprises 2 timer NE555 ICs, one CD4017 decade counter, one TIP32 driver transistor, a 2N3055/ TIP3055 power transistor and A Few other discrete components. Timer IC1 is configured as a mono-stable multivibrator produces a pulse Pls Which one presses switch S1 momentarily. This pulse acts as a clock pulse for the decade counter (IC2) Which advances by one count on Each successive clock pulse or the push of switch S1. Ten presets (VR1 through VR10), for Different sets of values by trial and error, Are Used At The ten outputs of IC2. But since only one output of IC2 is high at a time, only one preset (selected at the output) effectively comes in series with resistors R4 and R5 timing connected in the circuit of timer IC3 Which functions in astable mode. As presets VR1 through VR10 are set for Different values, Different time periods (or frequencies) for astable multivibrator IC3 Can be selected. The output of IC3 is applied to the pnp driver transistor TIP32 for driving the final power transistor 2N3055 Which in turn drives the wiper motor at the selected sweep speed. The power supply for the wiper motor as well as the circuit is tapped from the vehicle s battery Itself. The duration of the monostable multivibrator IC1 is set for a period of nearly one second.

Source :

Rangkaian Audio Channel Selector Stereo

type='html'>Audio Channel Selector

This circuit serves for connecting the stereo outputs from Four Different channels as inputs and only one of Them is selected to the output at any one time.

When the circuit switch on, channel A (AR and AL) is selected. If no audio is present in channel A, the circuit Waits for Some time and then Selects the next channel (channel B). This search operation continues Until it detects an audio signal in one of the channels. The inter-channel delay time or the wait Can be adjusted with the help of preset VR1. If still longer time is needed, May replace one capacitor C1 with of higher value.

To manually skip over from one active channel to another active channel, simply push the skip switch (S1), until the desired channel input gets selected. The selected channel (A, B, C, or D) is indicated by the glowing of corresponding LED (LED11, 12, 13, or 14 ).

Rangkaian Audio Channel Selector Stereo Skema rangkaian audio channel selector stereo

IC CD4066 contains 4 analog switches, These switches are connected to four separate channels. These analogue switches are controlled by IC CD4017 outputs. CD4017 is a 10-bit ring counter IC. Since only one of its outputs is high at any instant, only one switch will be closed at a time. IC CD4017 is configured as a 4-bit ring counter by connecting the fifth output Q4 (pin 10) to the reset pin. Capacitor C5 in conjunction with resistor R6 forms a power-on-reset circuit for IC2, so that on initial switching on of the power supply, output Q0 (pin 3) is always high . The clock signal to CD4017 is provided by IC1 NE555 which acts as an astable multivibrator when transistor T1 is in cut- off state.

IC5 KA2281 is used here for not only indicating the audio levels of the selected stereo channel, but also for forward biasing transistor T1. As soon as a specific threshold audio level is detected in a selected channel, pin 7 and/or pin 10 of IC5 goes low . This low level is coupled to the base of transistor T1, through diode-resistor combination of D2-R1/D3-R22. As a result, transistor T1 conducts and causes output of IC1 to remain low as long as the selected channel output exceeds the preset audio threshold level.

Presets VR2 and VR3 have been included for adjustment of individual audio threshold levels of left and right stereo channels, as desired. Once the multivibrator action of IC1 is disabled, output of IC2 does not change further. Hence, searching through the channels continues until it receives an audio signal exceeding the preset threshold value. The skip switch S1 is used to skip a channel even if audio is present in the selected channel. The number of channels can be easily extended up to ten, by using additional 4066 ICs.

Rangkaian Magnetic proximity sensors

Here is the circuit diagram of a magnetic proximity switch sensor which can be used in various applications. The circuit is based on a magnetic reed switch as the proximity sensor. A monostable multivibrator based on NE555 and a toggle flip flop CD4013 does the rest of the circuit.

rangkaian magnetic proximity sensors Skema rangkaian magnetic proximity sensors
magnetic reed switch magnetic reed switch sensor

The magnetic proximity switch sensor circuit, in principle, consists of a reed switch at its heart. When a magnet is brought in the vicinity of the reed switch it operates and controls the rest of the switching circuit. In place of the reed switch, one may, as well, use a general-purpose electromagnetic reed relay as the sensor, if required. These tiny reed relays are easily available as they are widely used in telecom products. The reed switch or relay to be used with this circuit should be the normally open type.

When a magnet is brought in the vicinity of the sensor element for a moment, the contacts of the reed switch close to trigger timer IC1 wired in monostable mode. As a consequence its output at pin 3 goes high for a short duration and supplies clock to the clock input (pin 3 CD4013). LED D2 is used as a response indicator.

This CMOS IC2 consists of two independent flip-flops though here only one is used. Note that the flip-flop is wired in toggle mode with data input (pin 5) connected to the Q (pin 2) output. On receipt of clock pulse, the Q output changes from low to high state and due to this the relay driver transistor T1 gets forward-biased. As a result the relay RL1 is energised.

Rangkaian Speaker Protector sederhana

type='html'>Speaker Protector sederhana

This circuit follows will connects the speakers to the power amplifier output only a few seconds after the amplifier is powered ON, so that the speakers do not accept popped up by a high voltage and you would not Hear a loud thud sound from the speakers When the amplifier is switched on. This stuff is very harmful to the speakers.

Rangkaian Speaker Protector sederhanaSkema rangkaian speaker protector

When the amplifier is powered on the bridge D1 also gets powered through the amplifier’s power switch. Capacitor C1 filters the output of bridge rectifier D1. When the power switch is made ON, the transistor Q1 gets switched ON only after the capacitor C2 is sufficiently charged (0.7V) through the resistor R1. Here the value of C2 and R1 are so selected that the time delay is around 2 seconds. So the relay gets activated only after a few seconds the amplifier is powered ON and until that time the speaker will be kept isolated from the amplifier’s audio output as the speaker is connected to the amplifier’s output through the N/O contact of the relay. During this initial delay period the output of amplifier will be grounded by the resistor R2 through the N/C contact of the relay. This is done in order to ensure that the DC blocking capacitor at the amplifier’s output is charged before it is connected to the speaker.

Rangkaian Speaker Protector sederhanaBetter quality speaker protector Circuit

Rangkaian LED 220VAC Sebagai Lampu Penerangan

The LED has advantages over other lighting technology. LED supposedly can hold up to 100,000 hours. This means that if the LED light 24 hours a day he would hold for 10 years. Whereas Fluorencent lights are usually only able to survive 1-3 years.

This is a modified version of the circuit, Super bright LED Night Light published that can directly connect to the netting PLN (220VAC).

rangkaian LED 220VACSkema rangkaian LED 220VAC

rangkaian LED 220VAC
Dangerous...!! this circuit directly connected to the netting of electricity, voltage 220V electricity it could sting you. Avoid working in damp and directly with ground

This is the circuit of a well tried and reliable 230-volt AC mains operated 24 LEDs (super bright LEDs 50mA). While Practically compare the brightness Between this and 11watts tube circuit, the LED light is much better. The layout is made in such a way, you get uniform Illumination. A photographs of the cicuit is Also given in this post.

Skema Dancing LEDs, Following the Rhythm of Music

type='html'>Dancing LEDs

The basic circuit illuminates up to ten LEDs in sequence, following the rhythm of music or speech picked-up by a small microphone. The expanded version can drive up to ten strips, formed by up to five LEDs each, at 9V supply.

Rangkaian Dancing LEDsSkema Rangkaian Dancing LEDs

IC1A amplifies about 100 times the audio signal picked-up by the microphone and drives IC1B acting as peak-voltage detector. Its output peaks are synchronous with the peaks of the input signal and clock IC2, a ring decade counter capable of driving up to ten LEDs in sequence.
An additional circuit allows the driving of up to ten strips, made up by five LEDs each (max.), at 9V supply. It is formed by a 10mA constant current source (Q1 & Q2) common to all LED strips and by a switching transistor (Q3), driving a strip obtained from 2 to 5 series-connected LEDs. Therefore one transistor and its Base resistor are required to drive each of the strips used.

List Component of Dancing LEDs Circuit
  • R1: 10K 1/4W Resistor
  • R2,R3: 47K 1/4W Resistors
  • R4: 1K 1/4W Resistor
  • R5,R6,R7: 100K 1/4W Resistors
  • R8: 820R 1/4W Resistor
  • C1,C3: 100nF/63V Ceramic or Polyester Capacitors
  • C2: 10µF/50V Electrolytic Capacitor
  • C4: 330nF/63V Polyester Capacitor
  • C5: 100µF/25V Electrolytic Capacitor
  • D1: 1N4148
  • D2-D11: LEDs (any type and color)
  • IC1: LM358
  • IC2: 4017
  • M1: electret microphone
  • SW1: SPST Switch
  • B1: 9V PP3 Battery
Additional circuit parts:
  • R9,R10: 10K 1/4W Resistors
  • R11: 56R 1/4W Resistor
  • D12,D13 etc.: LEDs (any type and color)
  • Q1,Q2: BC327
  • Q3: BC337
  • The sensitivity of the circuit can be varied changing R4 value.
  • C4 value can be varied from 220 to 470nF in order to change the circuit speed-response to music peaks.
  • Adopting the additional circuit, only one item for R10, R11, Q1 and Q2 is required to drive up to ten LED strips. On the contrary, one item of R9 and Q3 is necessary to drive each of the strips you decided to use.
  • Each R9 input must be connected to IC2 output pins, in place of the LEDs D2-D11 shown. R8 must also be omitted.
  • Whishing to use a lower number of LEDs or LED strips, pin #15 of IC2 must be disconnected from ground and connected to the first unused output pin.
  • For example: if you decided to use 5 LEDs, pin #15 of IC2 must be connected to pin #1; if you decided to use 8 LEDs, pin #15 of IC2 must be connected to pin #9 etc.
  • Current drawing of the circuit is about 10mA.
  • Whishing to use a wall-plug adapter instead of a 9V battery, you can supply the circuit at 12V, allowing the use of up to 6 LEDs per strip, or at 15V, allowing the use of up to 7 LEDs per strip.

Rangkaian ON OFF Sleep Timer Switch

type='html'>ON/OFF Sleep Timer Switch

This timer was designed mainly to switch off a portable radio after some time: in this way, one can fall asleep on the sand or on a hammock, resting assured that the receiver will switch off automatically after some time, saving battery costs.

Rangkaian ON OFF Sleep Timer SwitchSkema Rangkaian ON OFF Sleep Timer Switch

R1 and C1 provide a very long time constant. When P2 is momentarily closed, C1 discharges and the near zero voltage at its positive lead is applied to the high impedance inputs of the four gates of IC1 wired in parallel. The four paralleled gate outputs of the IC go therefore to the high state and the battery voltage is available at Q1 Emitter. When P2 is released, C1 starts charging slowly through R1 and when the voltage at its positive lead has reached about half the battery voltage, the IC gate outputs fall to zero, stopping Q1. This transistor can directly drive a portable radio receiver or different devices drawing a current up to about 250mA. Connecting a Relay across the Emitter of Q1 and negative ground, devices requiring much higher voltage and current operation can be driven through its contacts.

Pushing on P2 for 1 to 5 seconds, the circuit starts and then will switch off after about 35 minutes. This time delay can be varied by changing R1 and/or C1 values. P1 will stop the timer if required. LED D1 is optional and can be useful to signal relay operation when the load is placed far from the timer.

List Component
  • R1: 10M 1/4W Resistor
  • R2: 4K7 1/4W Resistor
  • R3: 1K 1/4W Resistor
  • C1: 220µF/ 25V Electrolytic capacitor
  • D1: LED
  • D2: 1N4148
  • IC1: 4011 Quad 2 Input NAND Gate CMos IC
  • Q1: BC337
  • P1,P2: SPST Pushbuttons
  • RL1: 12V Relay

Rangkaian Radar Pompa Air (Kontrol Ketinggian Air)

type='html'>Radar Pompa Air (Kontrol Ketinggian Air)

By means of a Relay, employed to drive a water pump, this circuit provides automatic level control of a water reservoir or well.
Skema Rangkaian Radar Pompa air

  • The two steel rods must be supported by a small insulated (wooden or plastic) board.
  • The circuit can be used also with non-metal tanks, provided a third steel rod having about the same height of the tank will be added and connected to the circuit's negative ground.
The shorter steel rod is the "water high" sensor, whereas the longer is the "water low" sensor. When the water level is below both sensors, IC1C output (pin #10) is low; if the water becomes in contact with the longer sensor the output remains low until the shorter sensor is reached. At this point IC1C output goes high, Q1 conducts, the Relay is energized and the pump starts operating.

Now, the water level begins to decrease and the shorter sensor will be no longer in contact with the water, but IC1C output will be hold high by the signal return to pin #5 of IC1B, so the pump will continue its operation. But when the water level falls below the longer sensor, IC1C output goes low and the pump will stop.

SW1 is optional and was added to provide reverse operation. Switching SW1 in order to connect R3 to pin #11 of IC1D, the pump will operate when the reservoir is nearly empty and will stop when the reservoir is full. In this case, the pump will be used to fill the reservoir and not to empty it as in the default operating mode.

List Component
  • R1,R2: 15K 1/4W Resistors
  • R3: 10K 1/4W Resistor
  • R4: 1K 1/4W Resistor
  • D1: LED
  • D2: 1N4148 Diode
  • IC1: 4001
  • Q1: BC337 NPN Transistor
  • SW1: witch
  • RL1: Relay with SPDT 2A @ 230V switch, Coil Voltage 12V

Rangkaian 220V Lamp Flasher

The 220V Lamp Flasher circuit basically is a line powered flasher which can be used in many applications such as the Chritmas lamp. Below is the circuit schematic diagram

Skema Rangkaian 220V Lamp Flasher

  • Input supply - 6 ~ 12 VDC
  • Output - upto 200 W lamp / bulb load
  • Optically isolated Mains supply
  • Onboard preset to adjust the frequency (speed) of flashing (1 Hz to 5 Hz)
  • Power Battery Terminal (PBT) for easy input 230 VAC mains and load connection
  • Terminal pins for connecting DC power supply
  • Four mounting holes of 3.2 mm each
  • List Componet of 220V Lamp Flasher circuit
  • CN1: 6 V to 12 VDC voltage source
  • C1: 10uF/25V capacitor elektrolit
  • C2: 0.22uF/275V capacitor elektrolit
  • C3: 47uF/25V capacitor elektrolit
  • C4: 0.1uF/25V capacitor elektrolit
  • D1: LED
  • D2, D3: 1N4148 Dioda
  • PR1: 100K Variable resistor
  • PR2: 50K Variable resistor
  • Q1: TIC226 Triac
  • R1: 2k2 resistor 1/2 watt
  • R2, R5: 1K resistor 1/2 watt
  • R3: 180E resistor 1/2 watt
  • R4: 680E resistor 1/2 watt
  • U1: LM555 IC timer
  • U2: MOC3021
  • V1: 230V AC input
  • Z1: 100W Load
This circuit directly connected to the netting of electricity, voltage 220V electricity it could sting you. Avoid working in damp and directly with ground

Friday, June 29, 2012

Rangkaian Lampu LED Untuk Motor (12 Volt Battery)

type='html'>Lampu LED Untuk Motor

Lamp type LED has several advantages compared with the usual light when the applied on a motorcycle.
In addition to more efficient battery when compared with normal hologen lamps, LED also has several other advantages, such as light more evenly and provide a luxurious feel to the vehicle.

The following are examples of simple creations that you can apply to decorate your motorcycle using the LED.
Lampu LED Untuk MotorRangkaian Lampu LED Untuk Motor

For this circuit is recommended only as a replacement motorcycle brake lights or city lights with the electrical source from the battery. Indeed in the market has many available variations of LED lights that can be used as brake lights or disco lights, but maybe some people would be proud if his own creative, hopefully circuit schemes that we present above can assist you in creating.

The following examples of applications that we apply to motorcycles mio

Lampu LED Untuk Motor
Lampu LED Untuk Motor

Rangkaian 12VDC Fluorescent Lamp Driver

Whenever there is a need for battery-powered lighting, like for camping, solar powered cottages, cars, boats, planes, or emergency purposes, fluorescent lamps have a great appeal. Firstly, they are very much more efficient than glow lamps, so they produce much more light for less power consumption. Secondly, their light color stays constant while the battery runs down.

In this article I will offer driver circuit for 12 V/5Watt fluorescent lamp, this circuit used a normal 220 to 10V stepdown transformer in reverse to step 12V to about 240V to drive a lamp without the need to warm the filaments.
Rangkaian 12VDC Fluorescent Lamp DriverSkema Rangkaian 12VDC Fluorescent Lamp Driver

  • Q1 (IRF510 MOSFET) must be installed on a heat sink
  • Dangerous ...!! Please be careful, This series contains 220 VAC that can sting you.

The IC1 TLC 555 is wired as an astable multivibrator for producing the necessary oscillations.The MOSFET Q1 is used to amplify the oscillations produced by the IC1.The out put of MOSFET is connected to the primary of the step up transformer to produce a ~240 V AC for driving the florescent lamp.

List Component:
  • C1 100uf /25V Electrolytic Capacitor
  • C2,C3 100nf Ceramic Capacitor
  • C4 100nf /1KV Ceramic Capacitor
  • R1 1K Resistor
  • R2 2.7K Resistor
  • Q1 IRF510 MOSFET
  • U1 TLC555 Timer IC
  • T1 300mA, 10V/220v Transformer
  • LAMP 5W Fluorescent Lamp
  • MISC Board, Wire, Heatsink For Q1

10-Band Graphic Equalizer Circuit Diagram

This circuit allows you to equlize the audio signals in 10 band. It uses low amount op-amps (TL074 - JFET op-amp) to anatomy a able blaster circuit. The affection of the architecture is a classical band-pass alive filter. The VCC is in ambit of 12 ~ 15 VDC and The VDD is in ambit of -12 ~ -15 VDC respectively.
Rangkaian 10 band graphic equalizer Skema rangkaian 10-band
graphic equalizer

For more details the circuit scheme, click on the picture

As shown in the diagram, there are 10 same units that only differ in capacitance values of capacitors which determine the frequency band of each filter. The potentiometers adjust the predetermined regions of frequency in each unit.

The components must be high quality and have low tolerance, Specifically potesometer RV1... the 10 and capacitors.. The resistors must be metal-film type.

If it is intended for stereo use then it will be supposed it is made in two pieces with as much as possible suited the materials, between the channels, so that do not exist differences in the regulation of each band frequencies.

Switch S1 isolates the circuit EQ, when him we did not need and it ensures level [ flat ] response in the exit of circuit. The circuit should be connected between preamplifier and in a final power amplifier.

Component list of graphic equalizer circuit
  • R1-R20= 10Kohms
  • R21-R40= 1Mohms
  • R41-R10Kohms
  • R42= 1Kohms
  • R43-R52= 2.2Kohms
  • R53-R62= 47Kohms
  • R63-64-66-67= 47Kohms
  • R65= 10Kohms
  • R68-69= 47 ohms 1/2W
  • RV1-RV10= 100Kohms lin FADER
  • RV11= 10Kohms log.
  • C1= 180nF polyester
  • C2= 18nF polyester
  • C3= 100nF polyester
  • C4= 10nF polyester
  • C5= 47nF polyester
  • C6= 4.7nF polyester
  • C7= 22nF polyester
  • C8= 2.2nF polyester
  • C9= 12nF polyester
  • C10= 1.2nF polyester
  • C11= 5.6nF polyester
  • C12= 560pF polysterine
  • C13= 2.7nF polyester
  • C14= 270pF polysterine
  • C15= 1.5nF polyester
  • C16= 150pF polysterine
  • C17= 680pF polysterine
  • C18= 68pF polysterine
  • C19= 360pF polysterine
  • C20= 36pF polysterine
  • C21= 4.7uF polyester
  • C22-23= 33pF polysterine
  • C24= 10uF 25V
  • C25,C26= 47uF 25V
  • C27-C32= 47nF polyester
  • IC1-IC3= TL074
  • S1= 2X4 SW for stereo

600 Watt Darlington Power Amplifier Circuit

This Power amplifier circuit is based around IC audio power amplifier driver (LM4702) manufactured by NATIONAL and darlington power transistors MJ11029 - MJ11028 by ON semiconductors
Rangkaian 600 Watt Darlington Power AmplifierRangkaian 600 Watt
Darlington Power Amplifier

  • Recommended power supply voltage : 30V to 35V
  • Max power supply voltage : 45V

This Power amplifier circuit produces output power up to 300 watts ( 8ohms) pada masing-masing channelnya. It is a high fidelity audio power amplifier. Designed for demanding consumer and pro-audio applications. You can also use this circuit with AV receivers, Audiophile power amps, Pro Audio High voltage industrial applications etc

Amplifier output power maybe scaled by changing the supply voltage and number of output devices. The circuit includes thermal shutdown circuitry that activates when the die temperature exceeds 150. CIRCUIT mute function, when activated, mutes the input drive signal and forces the amplifier output to a quiescent state.

IC audio power amplifier driver
(LM4707) Pinning

IC 555 Motorcycle Alarm Circuit

type='html'>Rangkaian Motorcycle Alarm

This circuit features an intermittent siren output and automatic reset. It can be operated manually using a key-switch or a hidden switch; but it can also be wired to set itself automatically when you turn-off the ignition. By adding external relays you can immobilize the bike, flash the lights etc. I have used Andy's Asymmetric Timer as the basis for this design.

Rangkaian Motorcycle AlarmSkema Rangkaian IC 555 Motorcycle Alarm

Any number of normally-open switches may be used. Fit "tilt" switches that close when the steering is moved or when the bike is lifted off its side-stand or pushed forward off its centre-stand. Use micro-switches to protect removable panels and the lids of panniers etc.

The alarm's standby current is virtually zero - so it won't drain your battery. Once activated - the rate at which the siren switches on and off is controlled by R7, R8 & C4. For example, increasing R7 will make the sound period longer - while increasing R8 gives longer silent periods.

The circuit is designed to use an electronic Siren drawing 300 to 400mA. It's not usually a good idea to use the bike's own Horn because it can be easily located and disconnected. However - if you choose to use the Horn - remember that the alarm relay is too small to carry the necessary current. Connect the coil of a suitably rated relay to the "Siren" output. This can then be used to sound the Horn, flash the lights etc.

The circuit board and switches must be protected from the elements. Dampness or condensation will cause malfunction. Connect a 1-amp in-line fuse AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE to your power source. This is VERY IMPORTANT. The fuse is there to protect the wiring - not the alarm. Exactly how the system is fitted will depend on the make of your particular machine - so I'm unable to provide any further help or advice in this regard.

When you set the alarm - if one of the switches is closed - the siren will sound. This could cause annoyance late at night. A small modification will allow you to Monitor The State Of The Switches using LEDs. When the LEDs are all off - the switches are all open - and it's safe to turn the alarm on

Source: http://www.zen22142.zen

Rangkaian Toggle Switch With Relay

This circuit will energize and de-energize a relay at the push of a button. Any type of momentary action push-to-make switch can be used. Pushing the button once - will energize the relay. And pushing it a second time - will de-energize the relay

Rangkaian Toggle Switch Skema Rangkaian Toggle Switch

I've drawn the circuit with a single pole relay. But you can use a multi-pole relay if it suits your application. Only one half of the Cmos 4013 is used. So you could construct two independent toggle switches with a single IC. The circuit will work at anything from 5 to 15-volts. All you need do is select a relay with a coil voltage that suits your supply.

The LED provides a visual indication that the relay is energized. In effect - it tells you whether the switch is on or off. It's not necessary to the operation of the circuit. If you wish you may leave out R3 and the LED.

Source: http://www.zen22142.zen

Megabass Circuit

The following is megabass circuit schematic (rangkaian megabass) . The megabass circuit is a modified Baxandall tone control with no bass cut and no treble control. It boosts frequencies from about 30Hz to 160Hz can boost by 14dB.
Rangkaian megabass Skema Rangkaian megabass

  • The input capacitor can be replaced with a .01uf cap if you wish.
  • The 10pf capacitor is optional and will start rolling off everything over 15kHz. 5pf will double this to 31kHz.
  • The tone control requires a low impedence input. If you already have a low impedence input, the input buffer can be removed. However, the output is inverted.
  • The opamp is not critical. A 4558 would be just fine.
  • I do not show the parts for the +4.5 reference. Here is the +4.5 voltage divider I used.
IC A4558 Pinning IC A4558 Pinning

The A4558 is a monolithic Integrated Circuit designed for dual operational amplifier.

Absolute maximum ratings of A4558 Ap-amp
  • Supply voltage VCC 20 or ±10 V
  • Differential input voltage VIND 20 V
  • Input voltage VIN ±10 V
  • Power Dissipation PD 300 mW
  • Operating temperature Topr -45 ~ +85 °C
  • Storage temperature Tstg -55 ~ +150 °C

220 Volt Disco Lamp circuit

This disco lamp circuit is not a voice operated switch (VOX) because this circuit is too dumb to differentiate between musical sound or human voice. This is rather a sound activated than voice activated. One interesting application is to control your disco lighting automatically by the musical sound from high power amplifier, when the music signal is dominating the sound space. The disco lamp circuit schematic diagram is shown below.
220 Volt Disco Lamp circuit
You can use either moving coil microphone or condenser microphone for this circuit. Make sure the electrolytic capacitor is rated for 16 volt or more. The potentiometer shown in the schematic diagram is used to adjust the gain of the pre-amplification. You can adjust this potentiometer to get a proper sound level where the relay would be activated.

List Componet Of Disco Lamp circuit
  • R1 : 22k 1/4 watt resistor
  • R2 : 4K7 watt resistor
  • R3 : 2K2 watt resistor
  • R4,R8 : 10K watt resistor
  • R5 : 33K watt resistor
  • R6 : 56K watt resistor
  • R7 : 1M watt resistor
  • Potensio: 50K
  • C1 : 470uf/35V electrolytic capacitor
  • C2 : 22n ceramic capacitor
  • C3 : 100n ceramic capacitor
  • C4 : 1Uf/50V electrolyticcapacitor
  • D1 - D5 : 1N4007
  • D6 : Zener 5.1v
  • D7 : 1N4148
  • IC : CD 4069
  • SCR : FIR 3D
  • Mic : Mic Condensor

Rangkaian On/Off 24 Hours Timer

type='html'>This is a circuits are multi-range timers offering periods of up to 24 hours and beyond. This circuit can be used as repeating timers - or as single-shot timers
Rangkaian On/Off 24 Hours TimerSkema Rangkaian On/Off 24 Hours Timer

The Cmos 4060 is a 14-bit binary counter. However - only ten of those bits are connected to output pins. The 4060 also has two inverters - connected in series across pins 11, 10 & 9. Together with R3, R4, R5 and C3 - they form a simple oscillator.

While the oscillator is running - the 14-bit counter counts the number of oscillations - and the state of the count is reflected in the output pins. By adjusting R4 you can alter the frequency of the oscillator. So you can control the speed at which the count progresses. In other words - you can decide how long it will take for any given output pin to go high.

When that pin goes high - it switches the transistor - and the transistor in turn operates the relay. In single-shot mode - the output pin does a second job. It uses D1 to disable the oscillator - so the count stops with the output pin high.

If you want to use the timer in repeating mode - simply leave out D1. The count will carry on indefinitely. And the output pin will continue to switch the transistor on and off - at the same regular time intervals.

  • Using "Trial and Error" to set a long time period would be very tedious. A better solution is to use the Setup tables provided - and calculate the time required for Pin 7 to go high. For example, if you want a period of 9 Hours - the Range table shows that you can use the output at Pin 2. You need Pin 2 to go high after 9 x 60 x 60 = 32 400 seconds. The Setup table tells you to divide this by 512 - giving about 63 seconds. Adjust R4 so that the Yellow LED lights 63 seconds after power is applied. This will give an output at Pin 2 after about 9 Hours.
  • Ideally C3 should be non-polarized - but a regular electrolytic will work - provided it doesn't leak too badly in the reverse direction. Alternatively - you can simulate a non-polarized 10uF capacitor by connecting two 22uF capacitors back to back
  • The timers were designed for a 12-volt supply. However - provided a suitable relay is used - both circuits will work at anything from 5 to 15-volts. Applying power starts the timer. And it can be reset at any time by a brief interruption of the power supply.

Mobile Phone Battery Charger Circuit

This Mobile phone chargers circuit presented here comes as a low-cost alternative to charge mobile telephones/battery packs.

Mobile Phone Battery Charger CircuitCircuit of Mobile Phone Battery Charger

The 220V AC mains supply is downconverted to 9V AC by transformer X1. The transformer output is rectified by diodes D1 through D4 wired in bridge configuration and the positive DC supply is directly connected to the charger’s output contact, while the negative terminal is connected through current limiting resistor R2. LED2 works as a power indicator with resistor R1 serving as the current limiter and LED3 indicates the charging status. During the charging period, about 3 volts drop occurs across resistor R2, which turns on LED3 through resistor R3. An external 12V DC supply sourcecan also be used to energise the charger, where resistor R4, after polarity protection diode D5, limits the input current to a safe value. The 3-terminal positive voltage regulator LM7806 (IC1) provides a constant voltage output of 7.8V DC since LED1 connected between the common terminal (pin 2) and ground rail of IC1 raises the output voltage to 7.8V DC. LED1 also serves as a power indicator for the external DC supply. After constructing the circuit on a veroboard, enclose it in a suitable cabinet. A small heat sink is recommended for IC1.

Circuit Design By: PRINCE PHILLIPS

Microphone Condenser Pre Amplifier Circuit

This is a simple preamplifier circuit for electret condenser microphone. using a LM1458 dual op amp IC. The circuit takes the audio signal rom the condenser microphone and amplifier it, so you can use the microphone as the input to some device which wouldn’t normally accept microphone level signals .
Electret condenser Preamplifier Circuit Schematic Circuit of Microphone Electret
Condenser Pre Amplifier

The circuit requires a 6-9 volt supply. Output of the microphone amplifier can be made variable by connecting a 10kΩ potentiometer . Circuit’s gain can be increased by men perbesar the value of 47K, depending on the input sensitivity of the main amplifier system. The microphone should be housed in a small round enclosure.

List componet of condenser pre-amp mic circuit
Q1,Q2 : LM1458 Op-Amp
R1,R2,R3 : 4.7k ohm resistor
R4, R5 : 10k ohm resistor
R6,R7 : 47k ohm resistor
C1, : 0.22uF ceramic capacitor
C2 : 1uF ceramic capacitor
LM 1458 PinningAbsolute maximum ratings of LM 1458 IC
Supply Voltage : ±18V
Power Dissipation : 400 mW
Differential Input Voltage : ±30V
Input Voltage : ±15V
Output Short-Circuit Duration: Continuous
Operating Temperature Range : 0°C to +70°C
Storage Temperature Range : −65°C to +150°C
Lead Temperature :(Soldering, 10 sec.) 260°C

Rangkaian 50Hz Accurate Oscillator

This circuit is a getting a 50Hz pulse. The oscillator circuit need only provide the IC ELM446, crystal and two appropriate loading capacitors
Rangkaian 50Hz Accurate OscillatorSkema Rangkaian 50Hz Accurate Oscillator
  • for greater accuracy as usual, it is also good practice to place a bypass capacitor across the power supply as well

The IC ELM446 is an 8 pin digital divider integrated circuit, that provides both 50Hz and 1Hz outputs from a common 3.58MHz NTSC colourburst crystal. Externally, the designer need only provide the crystal and two appropriate loading capacitors, as well as a suitably bypassed power supply. Internal Oscillator circuits then use this reference frequency to precisely derive a stable 50Hz signal. For convenience, a complementary 50Hz signal is also provided. This signal is then further divided to provide a 1Hz signal output. By ELM Electronics
IC ELM446This is pinout of IC ELM446, If you need more detail please download ELM446's pdf datasheet.

Thursday, June 28, 2012

LTC4060 - NiMH/NiCd Battery Charger Circuit

This cheap and easy to build NiCd/NiMH Battery Charger circuit is suitable for automatically charging a wide range of batteries for many applications. This 'intelligent' charger was designed for high current and rapid charge applications such as cordless power tools and model racing cars. These battery packs are expensive and sometimes difficult to purchase. This charger uses the cell manufacturer's recommended charge method, to safely and quickly charge batteries.
Rangkaian NiMH/NiCd Battery ChargerSkema Rangkaian NiMH/NiCd Battery Charger

Linear Technology Corporation introduces the LTC4060, an autonomous 1- to 4-cell, 0.4A to 2A linear NiMH and NiCd battery charger. The LTC4060 includes all the functions required for a battery charger circuit. The design is simple and needs only three passive components. The LTC4060 also eliminates the need for a sense resistor and blocking diode, which increases efficiency and lowers the solution cost. This IC is targeted at applications including portable medical equipment, automotive diagnostic systems and industrial/telecom test devices.

The LTC4060 - NiMH/NiCd Battery Charger circuit Features
  • Complete Fast Charger Controller for Single, 2-, 3- or 4-Series Cell NiMH/NiCd Batteries
  • No Firmware or Microcontroller Required
  • Termination by –∆V, Maximum Voltage or Maximum Time
  • No Sense Resistor or Blocking Diode Required
  • Automatic Recharge Keeps Batteries Charged
  • Programmable Fast Charge Current: 0.4A to 2A
  • Accurate Charge Current: ±5% at 2A
  • Fast Charge Current Programmable Beyond 2A with External Sense Resistor
  • Automatic Detection of Battery
  • Precharge for Heavily Discharged Batteries
  • Optional Temperature Qualified Charging
  • Charge and AC Present Status Outputs Can Drive LED
  • Automatic Sleep Mode with Input Supply Removal
  • Negligible Battery Drain in Sleep Mode: <>
  • Manual Shutdown
  • Input Supply Range: 4.5V to 10V
  • Available in 16-Lead DFN and TSSOP Packages

220V AC Ultra Bright LEDs lamp Circuit

This ultra-bright white LED lamp works on 230V AC circuit with minimal power consumption. Ultra-bright LEDs available in the market cost Rs 8 to 15. These LEDs emit a 1000-6000mCd bright white light, like the welding arc and work on 3 volts, 10 mA. Their maximum voltage is 3.6 volts and the current is 25 mA. Anti-static precautions taken Pls Should Be handling the LEDs. The LEDs in a water-clear plastic package emit spotlight, while diffused type LEDs have a wide-angle radiation pattern.
220V AC Ultra Bright LEDs lamp Circuit220V AC Ultra Bright LEDs lamp Circuit

The schematics circuit of above employs capacitive reactance for limiting the current flow through the LEDs on the application of mains voltage to the circuit. We use only if a series resistor for limiting the current with mains operation. The 100-ohm, 2W resistor series avoids heavy 'inrush' During current transients. MOV at the input prevents surges or spikes, protecting the circuit. The 390-kilo-ohm, ½-watt resistor acts as a bleeder to Provide discharge path for capacitor Cx Pls mains supply is disconnected. The zener diode at the output section prevents excess levels of reverse voltage appearing across the LEDs During the negative half-cycles. During the positive half cycle, the voltage across the LEDs is limited to the zener voltage.
220V AC Ultra Bright LEDs lamp Circuit16-LED/46-LED combination

Aseries combination of 16 LEDs Gives a luminance (lux) equivalent of a 12W bulb. But if you have two series combinations of 23 LEDs in parallel (Total 46 LEDs), it Gives equal to a 35W light bulb.

Diode D1 (1N4007) and capacitor C1 act as rectifying and smoothing elements to Provide DC voltages to the row of LEDs. For a 16-LED row, use Cx of 12:22 μF, 630V; C1 of 22 μF, 100V; and zener of 48V, 1W. Similarly, for 46 LEDs combination use Cx of 0:47 mF, 630V; C1 of 33 μF, 150V; and zener of 69V, 1W. This circuit (inclusive of LEDs) costs Rs 200 to Rs 400.